Tag Archives: Forensics

When the World Dims

  

Today I awoke to the tragic and for me, incomprehensible, news of the death of my former boss and mentor, George Bengal. It has forced me to confront something I never foresaw or expected, and even when the warnings came, it still never seemed real.

George embodied vitality and energy.  He took care of himself religiously, going to the gym and watching what he ate. I used to tease him about the slime-green, hideous-looking drinks he would bring to work, but that was him (that attentiveness to his health is why this was so shocking). He radiated dedication and enthusiasm. I used to hear his voice down the hall from his office, shouting to his officers or laughing about a joke. He was passionate and inspiring. To me, he was larger than life.

I ask myself now, as I’ve asked myself mentally since I first heard of his diagnosis: how do you say goodbye to someone like that? How do you say goodbye to someone who has figured so prominently in your life for so long, been the reason you are where you are and are doing what you are doing, been the source of so much emotion, both good and bad? He and I clashed mightily over numerous issues. There was animosity and frustration, fear and skepticism, and, of course, respect and admiration. In the end, I believe we formed a bond of an indescribable kind – developed from working alongside each other and from learning, not from preconceived notions or second-hand knowledge or gossip. I know that the bad is fleeting and temporary; the good is permanent.

He took a stand for things he felt were right and didn’t back down. That obstinance was a source of animosity for some, and inspiration for others. I put myself in the latter category. He showed me different ways of looking at things and caused me to reconsider preconceived notions. His determination was a source of strength. He faced on a daily basis what most people would turn a blind eye to or refuse to acknowledge. You can read more about George here: http://www.fox29.com/news/145568011-story. There are so many things to say, but I just can’t find the words right now.

Perhaps the best thing is not to ask how to say goodbye. Just say “until later”. Someday I may get to hear your ringtone, “Moves like Jagger” again. And I can say all the things I didn’t get to say. But maybe then none of it will matter anymore. Until later… I will keep up the fight for you. Until later… I will laugh about the fun memories. Until later… I will always think of you as a mentor and friend. An inspiration. A hero.

Until later, George. You will be missed, and my world will be a little dimmer.

To donate to the George Bengal Fund to keep up the fight for animals: http://pspca.org/support-us/the-george-bengal-fund/

Trafficking Jam

Tons of confiscated illegal ivory displayed in February 2014 in Paris. Officials in France crushed the contraband, worth an estimated $1.4 million. (Bertrand Guay/AFP/Getty Images)

This is a great article on wildlife forensics that Weather.com put together. They interviewed me several times (it’s amazing how all of the talking gets whittled down) and the author found me through this blog! This is a huge article with beautiful pictures and quotes by many of the same people I am always “bumping into” (more on this later) and I am really excited about it. Just shows how small this field really is. But the author, Michele Berger, really dove headfirst into the issues and doesn’t shy away from any of the hard facts. Thanks, Michele, for the fantastic article and for including me.

http://stories.weather.com/animalforensics

Drones Help Rangers Fight Poachers

As a huge geek, I love it when novel technological concepts can be applied to conservation crises. Read on for a description of how drones are being used to fight wildlife crime…

rhino poaching

Visitors to Kruger National Park wait for a rhino to cross the road. Kate Brooks / Redux Pictures for Al Jazeera America

Article courtesy of Thomas Snitch, visiting professor in advanced computer studies at the University of Maryland.

This article originally appeared in The Conversation.

In 2014, 1,215 rhinos were killed in South Africa for their horns, which end up in Asia as supposed cures for a variety of ailments. An estimated 30,000 African elephants were slaughtered last year for their tusks to be turned into trinkets. The world loses three rhinos a day and an elephant every 15 minutes. Simply stated, this is an unsustainable situation.

Our team at the University of Maryland’s Institute for Advanced Computer Studies has created a new multifaceted approach to combat poaching in Africa and Asia. We devise analytical models of how animals, poachers, and rangers simultaneously move through space and time by combining high resolution satellite imagery with loads of big data—everything from moon phases, to weather, to previous poaching locations, to info from rhinos’ satellite ankle trackers—and then applying our own algorithms. We can predict where the key players are likely to be, so we can get smart about where to deploy rangers to best protect animals and thwart poachers.

The real game changer is our use of unmanned aerial vehicles, or drones, which we have been flying in Africa since May 2013. We’ve found that drones, combined with other more established technology tools, can greatly reduce poaching in those areas where rangers on the ground are at the ready to use our data.

In the past 10 years, the poaching of elephants and rhinos has increased exponentially, primarily because it’s a very lucrative criminal business. Rhino horns can fetch more than $500,000 or more than $50,000 per kilogram—more than the cost of any illegal narcotic—and a pair of elephant tusks can reach $125,000. Most of these illegal activities are run by Asian criminal syndicates, and there are well-founded beliefs that some of these proceeds are being funneled to political extremists in Africa.

Technology is a marvelous tool, but it must be the right solution for a particular problem. Engineering solutions that might work with the U.S. military looking for people planting improvised explosive devices in Afghanistan will not necessarily work in the African bush, at night, searching for poachers. The most challenging question about how UAVs are used in Africa is when and where to fly them.

image201501262453117okr76

The drone is watching. Courtesy of Thomas Snitch

Africa is too big to be simply launching small drones into the night sky with the hope of spotting rhinos or poachers by chance. This is where the analytical models come into play. Based on our models, we know, with near 90 percent certainty, where rhinos are likely to be on a particular night between 6:30 and 8:00, prime time for killings. At the same time, by mathematically recreating the environment when previous poachings have occurred, we have a very good idea of when and where poachers are likely to strike.

We don’t have to find poachers, we just need to know where the rhinos are likely to be.

For example, a large proportion of poachings occur on the days around a full moon; it makes sense since that’s when poachers can easily see their prey. In one area where we have months of experience, we discovered that nearly every poaching occurred within 160 meters of a road. It’s simple. The poachers are driving the perimeter of the park in the late afternoon, spotting animals near the park fence; they return just after sundown, kill the animal, and drive away. We pile on the data, and the algorithms do the rest.

The key is that the satellites, the analytics and math, and the UAVs are integrated into a solutions package. We crunch the data, and the model tells us precisely where we should deploy our rangers on any specific night so they will be in front of the rhinos and can intercept the poachers before they reach the target animal. After all, there’s no value in rangers patrolling parts of the park that these animals are unlikely to ever visit. Consider that South Africa’s Kruger National Park is the size of the state of New Jersey. Like a bank robber who robs banks because that’s where the money is, we want our rangers to be near the rhinos because that’s where the poaching is.

On our first UAV flight in South Africa, the UAV flew to our pre-determined spot and immediately found a female rhino and her calf; they were within 30 meters of a major road. We decided to circle the drone over the rhinos, and within minutes a vehicle stopped at the park’s fence. Three individuals exited the car and began to climb the fence to kill the rhinos. Our rangers had been pre-deployed to the area; they arrested the three poachers in less than three minutes. This episode has been repeated dozens of times over the past 20 months.

The most critical issue is not how far or how long a UAV can fly but how fast a ranger can be moved, in the bush at night, to successfully intercept poachers. The UAVs are simply our eyes in the night sky. Watching their live infrared video streams, we move our rangers as if they were chess pieces. Even with great math, we have some variance, and that means we might be 200 meters off a perfect positioning. The UAVs can see poachers at least 2 kilometers from the rhinos. So we have 45 minutes to move our people into the most optimal position, based on our real-world trials of how quickly they can move through the bush at night.

rhino poaching

A forensic team from Kruger National Park gathers evidence at the site of the killing of two rhinos, a male and a female, Dec. 8, 2014. Kate Brooks / Redux Pictures for Al Jazeera America

We’ve had hundreds of night flights with more than 3,000 flight hours in the past 20 months, and here is what we’ve learned. First, on the first few days after we begin operating in a new area, we arrest a number of poachers, and they’re being prosecuted to the fullest extent of local laws.

Second, our models are heuristic in that they are constantly learning and self-correcting, on the lookout for changes in the patterns they’ve identified. This is critical since poachers will try to change their behavior once they learn that they are at an extremely high risk of apprehension. The sheer number of animals being killed shows us that, up until the UAVs take to the air, most poachers have been able to operate with impunity.

The most important finding is that in every area where we have put our solutions package to work and the UAVs are flying, poaching stops with five to seven days. Period—it stops. Tonight we are flying in a very challenging area in southern Africa—we don’t identify our flight operations so as not to alert the poachers—and over the past 90 days, there has not been one single poaching incident. Four months ago, this region was losing several rhinos a week.

The good news is that we have proof of concept and proof on the ground that UAVs can make a tremendous difference. The bad news is that the poachers are moving to regions where we are not operating. To really address the challenges of poaching in the region, all the nations in southern Africa should be willing at least to test our system in their most critically endangered areas.

Our solution to the poaching problem lies in the combination of satellite monitoring, great math, properly positioned rangers, and UAVs flying precise flight paths. It works.

New Wildlife Forensic Sciences Program!

The Maples Center for Forensic Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine has announced a new Graduate Certificate Program in Wildlife Forensic Sciences. This program is designed for wildlife conservation officers, fish and game officials, law enforcement officers, forensic investigators, and academic students in wildlife ecology and conservation, although anyone with an interest in these courses can take them.

On completion of the 9-credit certificate program, students will receive a University of Florida Certificate in Wildlife Forensic Sciences. This certificate program is open to appropriately qualified local, national, and international students.

And guess what? It’s my program! I’ve been busy getting the courses together for some time now. I’m very excited that registration is open and that the classes will begin in January… hopefully this is the beginning of some great things. This Thanksgiving, I’m happy for this new opportunity!

Stay tuned for updates.

Check out the program and register for courses here: http://wildlife.forensics.med.ufl.edu/

Celebrating Newfound Freedom

Happy 4th of July!

In celebration of this holiday, I’d like to share two recent, happy stories from the ASPCA:

The last week in June saw a judge in Florida rule in favor of turing over ownership of 700 cats to local authorities, rather than have them return to the sanctuary where they were housed. Thanks to the court order, they are one step closer to finding good forever homes and will never have to return to the filthy environment they were confiscated from – an overwhelmed “rescue” called Caboodle Ranch that could not (and would not, in some cases) provide the necessary care for the animals housed on site. The judge also “prohibited Caboodle Ranch from acquiring any more animals, ensuring that no more cats fall victim to hoarding there” (aspca.org).

 

Caboodle Ranch (photo courtesy of animalhoardinginfo.blogspot.com)

 

Read about the Caboodle Ranch investigation and rescue (which occurred this past February) by following this link (there’s a great video with on-the-ground footage – I was happy to see many familiar faces from the IVFSA conferences I’ve attended!): http://www.aspca.org/Fight-Animal-Cruelty/aspca-in-action/madison-county-florida-february-2012

Also in June, the ASPCA, along with NYPD Vice Enforcement Division and the Bronx District Attorney’s Office, rescued 50 dogs “ranging in age from 12 weeks to five years,  found living in the windowless basement of a six-story apartment building in the Bronx. The space, which served as a makeshift dog fighting arena, was littered with crude wooden cages and had the capacity for roughly 100 spectators. Raul Sanchez, the building’s superintendant, was taken into custody and charged with animal fighting, a felony. Also discovered on scene were a loaded .25-caliber handgun, U.S. currency, and other equipment associated with dog fighting—including dog treadmills, harnesses, muzzles, syringes and a shopping cart full of raw chicken parts” (aspca.org)

Bronx Dog Fighting Raid (photo courtesy of ASPCA)

Read about the rescue here: http://blog.aspca.org/content/aspca-rescues-50-dogs-bronx-dog-fighting-case

These victories prove we CAN make a difference! Let’s keep up the good work, and LET FREEDOM RING!

P.S. More dogs (cats too!) go missing on July 4 than any other day of the year. Fireworks scare animals! Keep your pets safe this holiday!

Veterinary Forensics Conference, Day 3

Third and last day of the conference. It’s bittersweet at the end of these events. I’m sad to leave a community of colleagues all passionate about the same things, but I’m grateful for the opportunity to be a part of it and happy that I leave with a brain full of information and new insights. When I’m faced with professional adversity I will try to keep the memories of the good feelings I had at the conference with me.

The morning of the third day a woman from the US War Dogs Association spoke to us about the organization and their efforts to secure medals of honor and memorials for the fallen canine officers. It was very moving. Following this, a pathologist from the medical examiner’s office presented on animals involved in some of the cases she has worked – VERY graphic pictures but equally interesting – did you know that Miami-Dade County experiences the most horse slaughter in the country?

Dr. Randy Lockwood from the ASPCA gave an extremely heart-wrenching talk regarding Phoenix – a dog who was doused in gasoline and set on fire by two brothers in Baltimore. Dr. Lockwood was called to consult on the case. I was in tears as he described the incident – how there was surveillance video of two boys (they were not yet 18-years-old at the time of the incident) kicking a dog who approached them in an alley, then leading the dog somewhere off camera; a few minutes later the video showed the same boys running out of the alley, followed by a dog running, engulfed in flames. A Baltimore police officer on routine patrol had the decency to stop, put out the fire, and take the dog for emergency medical treatment. She called for other officers to come process the scene but NO ONE responded – not for a week. In that time all evidence had been compromised. The gas can was collected, but it had been sitting in the rain for a week. Dog feces was found in an abandoned house the brothers were known to frequent, but samples were not taken to compare to Phoenix, so no connection between the boys and the dog could be established. No one at the hospital where the dog was treated saved the towel she came in with for accelerant testing. No hair samples were collected. The collar on the dog was saved but it was not preserved in a non-reactive metal container that would keep the gasoline from degrading. Interviews with witnesses were futile, as Baltimore has a well-known “stop snitchin'” attitude and an extreme reluctance to cooperate with police. Phoenix was euthanized due to the severity of her injuries after a valiant fight, and the boys were remanded into adult court.

Phoenix

As many people now know, fire-setting and animal abuse have long been established as two major precursors to even more serious crimes and interpersonal violence.  During trial, the lack of sufficient evidence was the downfall of the case. The defense witnesses cast doubt on everything – the video surveillance, the arson evidence… the jury ended up in a deadlock and the defendants were released. They were retried recently and found not guilty. It took only an hour to decide, after almost 20 hours of deliberation at the first trial. News reports said the second jury was visibly disinterested, often seen laughing or even sleeping. There were issues with evidence and testimony being barred. In short, it went horribly wrong. Interestingly, a bit of poetic justice: both boys have been arrested and thrown in jail on other charges since the first trial, including drug possession, burglary, and attempted murder. But, as Dr. Lockwood said, Phoenix did not die in vain: an anti-animal cruelty task force has been established in Baltimore. Billboards have gone up. Awareness has increased. Some good has come of it. But the sickness in the pit of my stomach even as I write this remains strong. This is why I continue to be interested in increasing the knowledge of proper forensic techniques for those involved in animal cruelty cases.

Finally, Diane Balkin spoke again, this time on search and seizure and proper execution of warrants. She told us of an interesting case in which a weapon was found in a trash can that was located right outside a suspect’s house. The trash can was not included in the warrant and so the weapon could not be seized as evidence because of the concept of curtilage, which describes the area immediately surrounding a house including associated structures where a homeowner has a reasonable expectation of privacy. It could have been seized if the warrant included the trash cans, or if the cans had been moved to the curb for pick up, as this would have made them “abandoned” property. Interesting. I love law and should have been an attorney.

Now, it is back home and back to reality. I am sad my time at the conference is over but glad for all of the new information. It is always a comfortable bubble of support at these conferences, but it bursts fairly harshly when I am home and on my own. But let’s see if I can make something happen here.

Thank you so much to IVFSA for all of your hard work and for inspiring me to continue the fight!

Here are some more photos of my time in South Beach – enjoy!

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Veterinary Forensics Conference, Day 2 Continued

Have my descriptions of the goings-on at this conference gotten you excited? I hope so!

The rest of day 2 was a whirlwind. There were presentations by students at the University of Florida, one on using craniometric measurements to determine sex in canines, and one on using cellular markers, or RNA, to determine the postmortem interval.

Dog skull (photo by skullsite.co.uk)

Nancy Bradley, a former police officer turned veterinarian, spoke on collecting ballistic evidence; her expertise came after the serial shooter case in Phoenix occurred several years ago. Her emphasis on handling the ballistic evidence from the animals in that case forced law enforcement to see the value of understanding what happened to the animals, because it was directly related to the human side of the investigation. Some of her pointers: collect gun shot residue (GSR) from the body, even if it may be difficult to test due to the distortion from the fur; use trajectory rods to show the path of the bullet after taking radiographs and put the rods through all of the organs affected; ask officers if they want the bullet cleaned or preserved for cytology; and handle any projectiles with your gloved hands or with plastic forceps rather than metal since the lead is surprisingly malleable and any lands and grooves (that would be used to prove/disprove a match could potentially be marred by improper collection methods.

After this was a presentation by Belinda Lewis, a photographer who teaches officers proper photographic techniques. I really learned a lot from her. Some of the tips she shared I already knew from school: when photographing, fill the frame, maximize the depth of field, etc., but she also taught us to use 18% gray scales rather than white when photographing evidence since it can wash out the photo, and to use gray towels under bodies during necropsies for the same reason. In specific cases, look for things that are often overlooked, for example, if a dog is found starved, show that the chain it was tethered with was too short to reach any food source. And photograph all necropsies!

Finally, Douglas Mader, a veterinarian and specialist in reptiles, gave a fun and extremely interesting presentation on reptile forensics, a subject I know NOTHING about. It was truly fascinating, because he made us question what really constitutes abuse. Many people put live mice in a cage with a snake thinking that the snake will eat the mouse, but often the snake is not hungry but the mouse is… the mouse can cause sometimes severe damage to the snake by gnawing on it and the snake will typically fail to react because it’s predator instincts are not being utilized when it’s not hungry. This most likely isn’t abuse but merely a mistake. However, what if someone puts a ferret in with a snake? Picture the damage a ferret could inflict on a snake. That shows intent. And did you know that the USDA does not cover reptiles or amphibians with regards to care? And there is no published data on required cage habitats. Pictures of a puppy mill can invoke feelings of sadness and disgust. We’ve realized how horrible they are. But what about the snake breeders who keep them housed in tiny plastic cages with barely enough room to move, no stimulation or proper ventilation? Why is this not considered as reprehensible as the puppy mill? Interesting discussions also on whether or not reptiles and amphibians feel pain or stress or boredom, and, really, how we would know? Dr. Mader was SO much fun and had us laughing hysterically while still pondering some serious issues.

Snakes in breeding boxes in an incubator (photo from reptilegeeks.com). Is this acceptable??

Sadly, that was the end of the second day of presentations. The evening concluded with a business meeting, and some of us got together for dinner and drinks. I found myself exhausted but exhilarated by all of the things I had seen and learned. These conferences really make me anxious to learn more. I know that I will be back in school in the not-so-distant future, possibly pursuing anthropology, or molecular biology. Not sure yet. But this conference has sure given me much to think about!

Stay tuned for the third and last day! And as always, you can find more information on the IVFSA website!

Parked outside our hotel!

Veterinary Forensics Conference, Day 2

I am blown away by all the information…

On the second day’s agenda:

Toby Wolson, a forensic scientist, spoke on bloodstain pattern analysis (BPS) and the changes this branch of forensics has experienced sine 2008. He told us that standards are being established so that every organization utilizing BPS has something to adhere to, and these are being developed through SWGSTAIN (scientific working group on BPS); in 2009 they published a source for BPA terminology. Every branch of forensics has its own SWG to develop standards to help keep the branches from being inadmissible to court. He also showed us how to take proper photos. I would have liked a bit more of the actual science and perhaps its applicability to vet forensics but the presentation was good nonetheless. Did you know that the Sam Sheppard case in 1966 was the first time that bloodspatter evidence was used in court??

Terrible photo of Toby Wolson’s presentation.

Amanda Fitch, a crime scene investigator at the University of Florida, presented on the proper methods for crime scene sketching. There’s more to it than you think! There are three main sketching techniques that can be used: a plan view, or what is essentially a floor plan, a profile view, which depicts a side view that can show the location of bullet holes or blood spatter on walls, and an exploded view, that is a floor plan view with the walls shown flat. There should always be a rough sketch done at the crime scene that can be finalized later, should a final version be needed for court. And evidence can be measured using either an X,Y coordinate method from fixed points, a triangulation method used mostly in outdoor scenes, or a baseline method, used outdoors where there are no landmarks. I will have to elaborate more on this later… this should be a branch of forensics all to itself.

Sharon Gwaltney-Brant, a veterinarian and president of IVFSA until this meeting, spoke about handling animals in methamphetamine raids. I had never even considered the possibility of this, but it’s a fairly common occurrence in certain areas. By far the most common injury to animals in these circumstances is walking through acids or fluids that have spilled, as there are many hazardous substances in these often clandestine labs. She also said to be cognizant of inhalation injuries, high ammonia levels, and aerosolized chemical spills. Institute a site safety officer and find out who needs to go into the contamination zone. All animals coming out need to be decontaminated, so take any needed evidence samples first, and be aware that blood and urine samples should be taken ASAP, although meth stays in an animal’s/person’s system longer than many drugs. Above all, consider the animal’s safety first. Many of them will be starved, neglected and abused and may need immediate care.

Once again, I have rambled on. But Day 2 isn’t over yet – there’s still lots to come! Can you tell I’m excited?? Stay tuned and don’t forget to check the IVFSA page… the location for the 2013 conference has been posted!!! Stay tuned…

South Beach morning clouds.

Veterinary Forensics Conference, Day 1 Continued

Since the first Day 1 update was so incredibly long, I will try to do a better job of summing things up, but there is just so much good information to share!

The final speaker of day 1 was Dr. Mike Warren, an anthropologist and C.A. Pound Human Identification Laboratory director. His talk was very interesting as it brought to light the lack of existing information with regard to the evaluation of animal skeletal remains in a forensic concept. He stressed the need to develop veterinary forensic osteology methodology, and perhaps a database. Although the basic properties of bone are the same between species, there is a lot that is unknown: do hanged pit bulls (often seen with regard to dog fighting) suffer any variation of a hangman’s fracture (a fracture of the pedicles of the C2 vertebra) in humans? How does a quadruped’s vertebral column respond? With regard to fractures from blunt force trauma to the cranial vault, do bones fracture the same way all the time (in humans, cranial bone responds in typical patterns to blunt force trauma)? In animals, are there named fractures with known mechanisms, like Colles fractures in humans? This is an area ripe for research – I could hardly sit still, I was so excited by this!

A poster presentation followed the speakers (I was privileged to be able to present and made a lot of great contacts) and then it was time for the soiree! Great appetizers and prepared food was served:

Our happy chefs…

and of course dessert:

Fondue!

and the 2012 conference’s signature drink, the Algor Mortis:

A rum concoction that tasted much better than it’s name would imply.

After gorging ourselves there was a “Bring Your Own Slides” event, where attendees could present cases they worked.

All in all, it was a great way to start the conference! More to come…

If you’d like to be part of next year’s conference, keep checking the IVFSA website!

Veterinary Forensics Conference, Day 1

FANTASTIC!! So many great presentations…

Dr. Bruce Goldberger, professor and director of the toxicology program at University of Florida spoke on consulting the media about high-profile cases. He has consulted on some of the most well-publicized cases of the last few years, including the deaths of Michael Jackson, Whitney Houston, Anna Nicole Smith, and Heath Ledger. It was fun to hear him describe some of his embarrassing on-camera blunders, and it was interesting to learn his tips for knowing when to say what to whom. His best advice: take advantage of a common question that is often asked at the end of press interviews, which is, “Is there anything else you’d like to say?” He told us to use that to our advantage to promote programs our organizations may have, or to correct something we may have said previously that we wanted to clear up. He also said we should NOT speak on matters that we are unfamiliar with or on cases in which we we are personally involved in the litigation. Very informative.

Diane Balkin, an attorney in Colorado who is an expert in handling animal cases discussed issues that often arise in hoarding or puppy mill cases. She stressed the need for proper documentation at all times – you can never take too many pictures! Full body photos of EVERY SINGLE ANIMAL should be taken with placards indicating the animal’s assigned number. Take photos of the overall scene, and sketch the layout so that you can identify which animal came from which cage. Save the cages! Save the food bowls! Everything is evidence! Take pictures of the live animals at the time of confiscation and then later, after treatment. Investigators who were at the scene should meet with the prosecutor to plan the case. Know your state’s laws – does the state where this occurred have cruelty statutes that apply to ANY animal or is livestock excluded? Each animal should have its own charges accompanied by proper documentation – do not lump the cruelty charges for four or five animals together as that leaves more of a chance for a successful appeal; in her words, “Each animal (in the case) should be specifically identified, so if treatment (act or omission) of an individual animal results in a provable violation then a charge should be filed for that animal”. And never forget that although mental illness often accompanies these types of crimes, it does not prohibit the person from being held accountable. You do not have to prove motive, only accountability. Above all, she said, NEVER GIVE UP! You can always make something from what seems like nothing. And did you know that there is almost a 100% recidivism rate for the defendants in hoarding cases??

Dr. Robert Reisman, a veterinarian with the ASPCA, spoke about blunt force trauma and showed some of his interesting cases. He has studied literature that corroborated some of his own findings: rib fractures are not commonly seen in animals involved in motor vehicle accidents – something I would never have guessed – most of the fractures occur in the appendicular skeleton. For other types of cases, do not assume that just because there is no sign of trauma on the external surface of the animal, even after shaving, that there is no internal damage. Always shave the animal. Always take radiographs, even in cases of suspected neglect or starvation as abuse frequently accompanies these, and note any callused bone that would indicate past trauma (bone fracture) that had healed – this could demonstrate chronic abuse. Reflect the skin to check for hemorrhage. Check for a severed frenulum (the strip of skin connecting the upper lip to the gum), an indicator of abuse often seen in child abuse cases. Check for broken teeth or mouth bleeding. The number of external lesions can determine the minimum number of blunt force impacts. If there are injuries to multiple areas of the body or to recessed parts of the body that would not typically sustain damage in the case of accidental injury, suspect abuse; for example, if an animal has hemorrhages in its groin area, this would not typically be seen in an accidental fall. Also, consider the explanation provided by the animal’s owner and assess whether it fits with the findings; for example, take into consideration the force involved in blunt force trauma… would the mass or weight of a tiny terrier merit massive trauma that results in death from a fall down the stairs?  Unlikely. Also, consider finding an engineer or physicist that could determine how much force was required to cause the animal’s injury.

Dr. Jason Byrd, a very reputable forensic entomologist and founding member of IVFSA, spoke on the latest happenings within this professional group, and the state of affairs of the online certificate program in veterinary forensics offered through the University of Florida, in conjunction with the ASPCA and the Maples Center. To sum it up, things are progressing well! Oh, and “like” them on Facebook. http://maples-center.ufl.edu, http://forensics.med.ufl.edu.

Good advice on the pathology front came from Dr. Beverly McEwen: case investigators should share case background with the pathologist, including crime scene information, when the animal was last seen alive, the time of day, location/position of the body, whether rigor was present, evidence of insect predation or scavenging on the premises and any possible exposure to hazards or toxins; this knowledge can greatly benefit their assessment of the animal. Also, make sure that the pathology or diagnostic lab to whom you are sending your samples has an SOP in place for handling legal cases, or ask the pathologist to document everything with photos, measurements, etc. Once again, it was stressed that a lack of external or cutaneous injury does not rule out internal trauma; shave and skin deceased victims. Take radiographs

I could go on (and on and on) but this has already become a ridiculously long post. I will try to shorten my summaries from now on, as I haven’t even finished with day one’s speakers!

If you find any of this interesting, please check out IVFSA.org and come to any of their great training programs, and of course to next year’s conference!

Kiteboarder on the beach in Miami!